By L. E. Mays, P. D. R. Gamlin (auth.), Prof. Dr. Ove Franzén, Dr. Hans Richter, Dr. Lawrence Stark (eds.)
This convention was once instigated by way of a mix of things: the character of the matter, the huge unfold occupational epidemiology suggested on eye indicators and eye fatigue within the office, and the organizers' understanding of the complexity of the clinical and medical bases of data that may be usefully utilized. The advent of latest equipment into process neurobiology presents new insights into how we obtain and strategy info from the exterior global, and act upon it. New, non-invasive tools have opened the best way to direct commentary of the human mind in motion. Due relatively to the interplay among the visible and oculomotor standards concerned, a number of medical and clinical fields intersect while those matters are thought of. to supply transparent imaginative and prescient the accommodative and pupillary mechanisms are used. to take care of binocularity, the ver gence oculomotor method, delicate to fatigue, needs to reach congruence with accommodative degrees. This accommodation-vergence linkage was once a spotlight of our symposium.
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Extra info for Accommodation and Vergence Mechanisms in the Visual System
Ohtsuka, K. and Noda, H. (1995) Discharge properties of Purkinje cells in the oculomotor vermis during visually guided saccades in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 74: 1828-1840. Ohtsuka, K. and Sato, A. (1996a) Descending projections from the cortical accommodation area in the cat. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 37: 1429-1436. Ohtsuka, K. and Sato, A. (1996b) Retinal projections to the accommodation-related area in the rostral superior colliculus of the cat. Experimental Brain Research (in press).
The rostral SC is a neural substrate for linkage between the accommodation and visual fixation systems. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of afferent and efferent pathways of the rostral SC. The rostral SC may be part of the final common pathway from the ocular near response and fixation systems in the cortex to the brainstem premotor circuit. Concluding Remarks The SC has long been recognized as an important structure in the generation of saccadic eye movements. Results of recent studies suggest that the rostral SC where the central visual field is represented is involved in the control of accommodation and visual fixation.
The saccade system is thought to be reciprocally related to the visual fixation system (saccade suppression system). For eliciting a saccade, the burst neurons are driven by a motor error signal while tonic discharge of the OPNs is turned off by an inhibitory trigger signal (Fuchs, et al. 1985). On the other hand, the saccade system is inhibited by the activity of OPNs during fixation for maintenance of stable foveal images. Neurons in the SC exhibit burst discharge in relation to saccades and project to the premotor area (Sparks, 1986).
Accommodation and Vergence Mechanisms in the Visual System by L. E. Mays, P. D. R. Gamlin (auth.), Prof. Dr. Ove Franzén, Dr. Hans Richter, Dr. Lawrence Stark (eds.)