By Victor Goldsmith, Philip G. McGuire, John H. Mollenkopf, Timothy A. Ross
This quantity exhibits how state of the art geographic details platforms (GIS), used to reveal styles of crime to stimulate powerful options and decision-making, are revolutionizing city legislation enforcement. The individuals current specialist details for knowing and effectively utilizing the most recent applied sciences during this box.
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Extra resources for Analyzing Crime Patterns: Frontiers of Practice
In a test of defensible space theory, Taylor, Gottfredson, and Brower (1984) hypothesized that physical features have a direct and indirect effect on violent crime and fear. The environment directly influences offenders' perceptions of accessibil ity and probability of apprehension. It also indirectly influences the formation of social networks and territorial functioning; residents who feel protected and safe will use neighborhood space more often, thus increasing contact with other resi dents, and territorial boundaries will increase residents' feelings of control over their environment.
The author believes that these benefits extended beyond the study area in at least one neighborhood. Improved street lighting also reduced fear of crime, improved people's image of the area, increased pedestrian street usage at night, and decreased fear among the el derly. Street lighting can decrease crime and fear by (a) improving visibility, thus deterring potential offenders who worry about being identified; (b) encouraging street usage, therefore increasing the number of "eyes on the street," informal sur- IB!
Taylor et al. were not surprised by the small impact of physical features on crime because "it is inevitable that the size of the direct effects should diminish as relevant mediating social and territorial variables [such as territorial functioning and size of social networks] are carefully measured and incorporated into the model" (p. 325). Thus, the physical environment affects crime through the mediating variables of social networks and territorial functioning. Perkins, Wandersman, Rich, and Taylor (1993) also examined the relationship between defensible space features of the physical environment and crime.
Analyzing Crime Patterns: Frontiers of Practice by Victor Goldsmith, Philip G. McGuire, John H. Mollenkopf, Timothy A. Ross