By Charles Stanish
One of many richest and most complicated civilizations in historic the US developed round Lake Titicaca in southern Peru and northern Bolivia. This publication is the 1st entire synthesis of 4 thousand years of prehistory for the total Titicaca quarter. it's a interesting tale of the transition from searching and collecting to early agriculture, to the formation of the Tiwanaku and Pucara civilizations, and to the double conquest of the zone, first via the strong neighboring Inca within the 15th century and a century later by means of the Spanish Crown. in response to greater than fifteen years of box study in Peru and Bolivia, Charles Stanish's ebook brings jointly a variety of ethnographic, ancient, and archaeological information, together with fabric that has now not but been released. This landmark paintings brings the author's intimate wisdom of the ethnography and archaeology during this sector to undergo on significant theoretical issues in evolutionary anthropology. Stanish presents a wide comparative framework for comparing how those complicated societies constructed. After giving an outline of the region's archaeology and cultural historical past, he discusses the heritage of archaeological examine within the Titicaca Basin, in addition to its geography, ecology, and ethnography. He then synthesizes the knowledge from six archaeological sessions within the Titicaca Basin inside an evolutionary anthropological framework. Titicaca Basin prehistory has lengthy been considered in the course of the lens of first Inca intellectuals and the Spanish nation. This ebook demonstrates that the ancestors of the Aymara humans of the Titicaca Basin rivaled the Incas in wealth, sophistication, and cultural genius. The provocative information and interpretations of this ebook also will make us imagine anew in regards to the upward push and fall of alternative civilizations all through historical past. 34 b/w pictures, 12 line illustrations, 37 maps, 19 tables
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Extra resources for Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia
In the second model the pre-Inca señoríos were not integrated as a state-level society, and the political structure suggested in the Diez de San Miguel Visita is seen as largely the creation of the Inca state. The archaeological data are contradictory. Apart from the large fortresses that would have required 14 massive labor, there is no additional evidence for complex polities. Unlike the earlier Tiwanaku and the later Inca, the Lupaqa produced no ﬁne-ware ceramics of any substance, and no stelae.
Other evidence indicates that the post-Tiwanaku populations met the drought condi- STANISH, Ancient Titicaca 11/21/02 10:20 AM Page 13 ANCIENT COLLASUYU tions with a classic response: the intensiﬁcation of animal keeping. As mentioned above, the pasturing of animals, particularly the highly resilient camelids of the altiplano, was a very effective response to drought. The Juli-Pomata settlement data indicate at the very least a major increase in the use of the puna grazing areas in the post-Tiwanaku periods, and probably a dispersal of the population.
The results suggest that the population 12 in the immediate post-Tiwanaku period either stayed the same or slightly increased. In other words, in two areas with good survey data, we can show that there was no demographic collapse coincident with Tiwanaku decline. Rather, in the immediate region the population dispersed from large, nucleated centers to smaller villages and hamlets. It thus appears that the collapse of Tiwanaku was a political and social organizational phenomenon, not a demographic one.
Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia by Charles Stanish